New generation antibiotics: pros and cons

New generation antibiotics: pros and cons

Antibiotics are substances of biological or semi-synthetic origin. They are used in medical practice to combat pathogenic microbes and viruses. Before the appearance of these medications, the status of incurable diseases was in typhoid fever, dysentery, pneumonia, and tuberculosis. Today, the treatment of infectious diseases is possible with the use of 1-6 generation of antibiotics.

At this time, the pharmaceutical industry produces more than 2000 varieties of drugs of this type. Doctors described the action of about 600 positions, and in medical practice, about 120-160 drugs are used.

Important! For any illness, it is recommended to take antibiotics after consulting a doctor. Otherwise, antibiotic resistance may develop (a decrease in the sensitivity of pathogenic microorganisms to antibacterial agents).

Classification of antibiotics
All antibacterial agents can be divided into 5 categories according to their characteristics and range of applications. Let’s consider this classification in more detail:

Mechanism of action:

• Bactericidal – the active substances of the preparations completely destroy bacteria and viruses. After taking such strong drugs, all the pathogenic microflora in the human body dies.

• Bacteriostatic – inhibit the growth or spread of viruses. Thus, the cells remain “alive” without forming pathogenic flora.

Spectrum of action
There are antibacterial agents:

A wide range of effects – they are prescribed for diseases of an infectious nature with an unexplained cause of malaise. These are bactericidal medicines, since they destroy all pathogenic flora.
Narrow range of action – destroy gram-positive bacteria (enterococci, listeria). After taking them, gram-negative pathogens of infectious diseases also die: Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Proteus, etc. This group also includes anti-tuberculosis, antineoplastic, antifungal agents.

By composition
Antibacterial drugs are divided into 6 groups:

Penicillins are the first antimicrobial drugs obtained back in 1928 from a biological substance (Penicillium fungi). Long remained the most popular drug for the treatment of infectious diseases.
Cephalosporins – belong to the group of the most powerful antimicrobial agents with a wide range of applications. They completely destroy the pathogenic flora, are well tolerated by humans.
Macrolides are the name of a group of narrow range antimicrobial agents. They do not destroy the diseased cell, but only stop its growth. This category includes such drugs: erythromycin, spiramycin, azithromycin.
Tetracyclines are good drugs for the treatment of infectious diseases of the respiratory as well as urinary tract.
Fluoroquinolones are antimicrobial agents with a wide range of effects. They completely destroy pathogenic microorganisms. On sale you can find 1-2 generation medicines. Usually doctors attribute them to fight Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Aminoglycosides are antimicrobial drugs with a wide range of applications. Popular drugs in this group – streptomycin (therapy for tuberculosis, plague) and gentamicin – are used as ointment, eye drops, injections for ophthalmic infections.
Generations of drugs. There are already six generations of advanced antimicrobial drugs. For example, penicillin was the first natural remedy, while the third or sixth generation is already an improved version that includes the strongest inhibitors. The dependence is direct: the newer the generation, the more effective the effect of drugs on the pathogenic microflora.

By the method of admission. Oral – taken by mouth. These are various syrups, tablets, dissolving capsules, suspensions. Parenteral – administered intravenously or intramuscularly. They are more effective than oral medications. Rectal preparations are injected into the rectum.

Important! Taking antibiotics is allowed only after consulting a doctor, otherwise antibiotic resistance will develop.

New generation antibacterial agents
The difference between the latest generations of antibiotics from their earlier versions in a more perfect formula of the active substance. The active components eliminate only pathological reactions in the cell pointwise. For example, new generation intestinal antibiotics do not disturb the gastrointestinal microflora. At the same time, they are fighting a whole “army” of infectious agents.

The newest antibacterial drugs are divided into five groups:

Tetracycline – tetracycline.
Aminoglycosides – streptomycin.
Penicillin series – amoxicillin and others.
Amphenicol – chloramphenicol.
Carbapenem group – meropenem, imipenem, invas.
Consider several well-known antimicrobial agents of imported and Russian production.

Amoxicillin is an imported antimicrobial drug from the penicillin group. Used in medical practice to treat bacterial infections. Effective for intestinal infections, sinusitis, tonsillitis, Lyme disease, dysentery, sepsis.

Avelox is a drug of the latest generation from the group of fluoroquinolones. Differs in the strongest effect on bacterial and atypical pathogens. Does not harm the kidneys and gastrointestinal tract. It is used for acute, chronic diseases.

Cephalosporins are third generation antibiotics. This group includes Ceftibuten, Ceftriaxone and others. Used to treat pyelonephritis, pneumonia. In general, these are safe products with few side effects. However, they should only be taken after consulting a doctor. There are many medications, but which one to choose – a specialist will recommend.

Doriprex is an imported antimicrobial drug of synthetic origin. Has shown good results in the treatment of pneumonia, advanced intra-abdominal infections, pyelonephritis.

Invas is an antibacterial agent from the carbapenem group. Available in ampoules for parenteral administration. Shows a quick effect in the treatment of bacterial disorders of the skin, soft tissues, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, septicemia.

Augmetin is a third generation semi-synthetic penicillin with the addition of enhancing inhibitors. Pediatricians are recognized as the best complex medication for the treatment of childhood sinusitis, bronchitis, tonsillitis and other respiratory tract infections.

Cefamandol is a Russian-made antibacterial agent. It belongs to the group of third generation cephalosporins. It is used to treat intestinal infections, pathogens of infections of the genital organs. As an antimicrobial agent with a wide range of effects, it is used for colds.

The best antibacterial drugs with a wide range of action
New generation antimicrobial agents are usually synthesized from natural raw materials and stabilized in laboratories. This helps to enhance the effect of the drug on the pathogenic microflora.

What are the strongest drugs? Doctors refer to such antibacterial agents of a wide range of effects. Below is a short list of drugs by name:

AMOXYCLAV – belongs to the group of aminopenicillins. Acts gently, used to treat infectious diseases. With caution and only after consulting a doctor, the drug can be used during pregnancy, as well as during periods of breastfeeding. Available in tablets or loose form for oral administration, as well as powders for injection.
SUMAMED is a popular antimicrobial drug for the treatment of infections of the gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary system, respiratory diseases – tonsillitis, bronchitis, pneumonia. It affects the liver and kidneys, therefore it is not attributed to patients with hypersensitivity to macrolides.
CEFOPERAZONE – belongs to the group of cephalosporins. It is prescribed by doctors for the treatment of urinary tract infections, prostatitis, skin disorders, and respiratory diseases. A good preparation for recovery after gynecological, orthopedic and abdominal surgeries. It is produced in the form for parenteral administration – injection.
UNIDOX SOLUTAB is the latest generation tetracycline. It is used for the extensive treatment of gastrointestinal infections, colds, prostatitis. Acts gently, without causing dysbiosis.
LINKOMYCIN is a drug that is prescribed for the treatment of osteomyelitis, sepsis, staphylococcal infections. It has the strongest effect on pathogenic cells, therefore it has a long series of side effects. Among them are hypotension, weakness, dizziness. Do not use during pregnancy, as well as in patients with hepatic renal failure.
RULID is a fourth generation macrolide. The main substance is roxithromycin. It is attributed to urogenital infections, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and upper respiratory tract. Available in tablets.
CEFIXIM – by name, this agent is from the group of cephalosporins. Has a bactericidal effect on pathogenic cells. Helps with infections of the gastrointestinal tract, prostatitis, and also treats colds. It is toxic enough that it should not be taken for kidney or liver problems.
CEFOTAXIM is the last group of cephalosporins. The medication is indicated for the treatment of gynecological, urological, colds. It copes well with inflammatory processes, suppresses pathogenic microflora.

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