Cracked toenail what to do

Cracked toenail what to do

Onychorexis or a crack along the nail what is it

The beauty of nails directly depends on their health. It is difficult to disagree that well-groomed nails can add neatness and neatness to an image.

But not in every situation, the beauty of nails can be given with the help of a regular manicure or pedicure. In some cases, the nail plates have serious defects, which are manifestations of somatic pathologies. Such manifestations require the intervention of a podiatrist. Violations of the integrity of the nail plate, delamination or fragility of nails require not only aesthetic closure with gel polish, but also treatment.

One of the types of nail deformities is onychodystrophy.

Onychodystrophy is a group of diseases of the nail plate, which are characterized by the appearance of changes in the color of the nail, its shape or structure. One of the pathologies of the group of onychodystrophies is onychorexis.

Onychorexis is a type of structural change in the nail plate, in which its longitudinal stratification occurs. In appearance, the pathology resembles a crack in the nail, going from the free edge to the base. The bundle can be single or multiple. As a rule, multiple onychorexis occurs on the nails of the hands, while the nail plates of the thumbs are more often affected on the legs.

Onychorexis in women and men appears equally often. If we single out the age category that is more susceptible to pathology, then these are the elderly.

Cracked toenail what to do? Such a complaint is a good reason to consult a podiatrist. The specialist will conduct a thorough examination of the defect, find out its etiology, and draw up a treatment plan for the defect in the nail plate.

The reasons for the development of onychodystrophy

A longitudinal crack on the toenail can disrupt the neatness of the entire pedicure. Unfortunately, very often it is not enough to do only the restoration of the beauty of the nail plate, because if you do not act on the cause of onychodystrophy, then there is the likelihood of an aggravation of the process.

In order to completely get rid of this defect of the nail plate, the intervention of related specialists is often required.

The main reasons for the appearance of onychodystrophy:

Caused by endogenous (internal) factors:

Lack of vitamins, minerals, micro- and macroelements;
Congenital anomalies
Skin diseases (psoriasis, dermatitis, lichen planus, neurodermatitis, etc.);
Endocrine pathologies (diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, etc.);
Malignant and benign neoplasms;
Diseases of the heart and blood vessels;
Decrease in the body’s immune reactivity;
Pathologies of the digestive tract (ulcers, gastritis, etc.);
Frequent stress;
Lack of good rest;
Abnormalities in the blood picture (for example, iron deficiency anemia).

Caused by exogenous (external) factors:

Fungal nail diseases;
Bacterial lesions of the nail plate;
Nail injury;
Improper care of the nail plates;
Rough, improper removal of gel polish;
Use of aggressive household chemicals in everyday life;
Unbalanced diet;
Poor quality of drinking water;
Adverse environmental impact;
Exposure to ultraviolet radiation.
More often the phenomenon of onychodystrophy is observed in women. This pathology in the fair sex is manifested in increased fragility and foliation of the nail plate. Perhaps this is due to the not always high-quality service in beauty salons.

Men are more likely to see a specialist for fungal or bacterial nail infections.

In childhood, onychodystrophies most often appear due to trauma to the nail plate.

In order to establish the cause of onychodystrophy, you need to consult a podiatrist . The specialist will be able to diagnose the pathology, draw up a competent treatment plan, and also appoint the necessary consultations with doctors of other profiles.

Symptoms of onychodystrophy

Depending on the cause of onychodystrophy, the disease can have different manifestations.

Congenital onychodystrophies:

Onychomadesis is the detachment of the nail from the skin at the points of its attachment to the skin ridges.
Koilonychia is a violation of the shape of the nail, in which the nail plate takes the shape of a saucer.
Anochilia is a congenital absence of one or more nail plates.
Platonychia is a flattening and thickening of the nail plate.
Micronychia is a pathology characterized by shortening of the nails.
Hippocratic nails – congenital enlargement of nails in size, as well as an irregular shape of the nail plates.

Acquired onychodystrophies:

Onychochisis is a transverse stratification of the nail into several components.
Onychorexis is the appearance of a crack along the nail without an inflammatory reaction.
Manicure onychodystrophy – the appearance of depressions on the nail from one edge to the other.
Median canaliform onychodystrophy is the appearance of one median crack on the nail plate, from which smaller cracks extend.
Onycholysis is a slow detachment of the nail from the nail bed with its complete preservation.
Onychogryphosis – age-related changes in the nail, characterized by thickening and curvature.
Leukonychia is a change in the color of the nails in the form of long white stripes.
Hyperpigmentation is a change in the color of the nails when taking medications, the appearance of subungual dystrophy or with somatic pathologies.
Scleronychia – increased hardness of the nail plates. It is often found in endocrine diseases.
Gapalonychia is the extreme softness and pliability of the nail. It is most often present in the pathology of the endocrine system.
Trachyonychia – turbidity, roughness, delamination of the nail plate. In most cases, it is a manifestation of immunodeficiency.
“Digitalis” onychodystrophy is the appearance of depressions on the surface of the nail. Most often it indicates the appearance of psoriasis.
Symptoms for onychodystrophy are diverse. Therefore, in order to establish the true cause of the appearance of the pathology, as well as to find an effective method of treatment, it is necessary to consult a podiatrist.

In case of untimely referral to a specialist, as well as in the complete absence of treatment, the following complications may occur:

Destruction of the nail (complete / partial);
Attachment of a bacterial or fungal infection;
Inflammation of the periungual roller;
Progression of somatic pathology.

To avoid the development of complications, it is important to consult a specialist in a timely manner. Mikulo Natalya Valerievna is a podiatrist with extensive clinical experience. The specialist holds a reception at the address: Moscow, metro Konkovo st. Profsoyuznaya, house 109, shopping center “Seventy seventh”.

Why do adults and children develop cracks?

As a rule, onychorexis is not an independent disease. Most often, this is just a symptom of somatic pathology. Therefore, when a longitudinal nail stratification appears, qualified help is required not only from a podiatrist, but also a consultation from a therapist, endocrinologist, cardiologist or other specialists.

Each age may have its own reasons for the appearance of onychorexis. For example, in childhood, such a pathology can occur against the background of an irrational, unbalanced diet. The child’s body needs a large amount of vitamins, minerals, macro- and microelements – this is the key to harmonious growth and timely development of the baby. If, for some reason, these “building materials” are not enough, then health disorders of varying degrees and severity appear.

At a more mature age, onychorexis may appear for the following reasons:

Somatic diseases:

Autoimmune diseases;
Skin and venereal pathologies;
Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
Endocrine system pathologies;
Vascular disease;
Mental disorders.

Other factors:

Injuries to the nail plate;
Frequent use of caustic household chemicals;
Carrying out a manicure without understanding the structure of the nail plate;
Viral and bacterial infections;
Improper removal of gel polish;
Unbalanced diet;
Poor quality of drinking water;
Bad ecology.

Thus, when treating a crack on a toenail, it is not enough to restore the aesthetics of the nail plate, it is equally important to identify and eliminate the factor that contributes to the formation of onychorexis.

Where to find a podiatrist in Moscow with extensive clinical experience? Mikulo Natalya Valerievna is a podiatrist with extensive experience. The specialist takes in the medical center “Private podological practice”, which is located at Moscow, metro Konkovo st. Profsoyuznaya, house 109, shopping center “Seventy seventh”.

Treatment of cracked up and down the nail plates

Cracked toenail treatment almost always requires an integrated approach to the problem. Unfortunately, correcting the flaw only cosmetically is not always the right decision in this case. After all, external beauty can provoke the development of complications on the nail plate. Therefore, it is extremely important to find the cause of the crack on the toenail, and also to eliminate it.

So, for example, if onychodystrophy is caused by a somatic pathology, then to eliminate it, consultation of related specialists is required – an endocrinologist, cardiologist, therapist, etc.

The elimination of deformations of the nail plates is carried out by a podiatrist. After collecting anamnesis, examining the affected area and diagnosing, the doctor will diagnose, and also announce an approximate treatment plan. In each case, the therapy program is drawn up individually.

An approximate plan for the diagnosis of onychodystrophy includes the following points:

Sowing for fungal flora;
Scraping microscopy.

The main activities that are included in the treatment plan:

Prescribing drugs. Most often this includes vitamin and mineral complexes, immunostimulants, drugs that improve peripheral circulation. Slightly less often, sedatives are prescribed.
Physiotherapy treatment. This group of therapeutic effects can include hot baths with sea salt or essential oils. Paraffin therapy has a good effect.
Treatment of nail plates with apparatus and local preparations.
The use of keratolytic patches as directed by a doctor.
Compliance with the water regime, as well as a balanced diet.
Consultation of doctors of other specialties (if necessary).

What to do for prevention?

For the prevention of onychodystrophy, the following rules should be followed:

Compliance with hand hygiene rules;
Prevention of fungal and bacterial infections of the nail;
Treatment of somatic pathologies;
Compliance with the drinking regime;
Balanced diet;
Vitamin therapy (if necessary);
Compliance with sleep and rest.

In most cases, the effective prevention of onychodystrophy is the observance of the rules of manicure and pedicure. For maximum safety during these procedures, you should contact only proven salons, where the masters adhere to the rules of asepsis and antiseptics, and also know the basic principles of working with the nail plate.

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